Recently reported experimental studies offer insight into the various mechanisms through which dietary fiber may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in humans. Although most work has focused on traditional risk factors, studies have begun to explore less studied areas of risk such as fibrinolysis. Epidemiologic results have consistently demonstrated inverse associations between dietary fiber, particularly cereal fiber and whole grain foods, and the development of CVD morbidity and mortality. These associations have been observed in both men and women and are not accounted for by potential confounders such as other dietary and lifestyle factors; nor can they be fully explained by body habitus, antioxidants, and other nutrients found in fiber-rich foods. The evidence to date supports clear recommendations for a diet based on fiber-rich foods.