Background: Breast density is an established predictor of breast cancer risk, and there is considerable interest in associations of modifiable lifestyle factors, such as diet, with breast density. Objective: To determine whether dietary energy density (ED) is associated with percent dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) in young women. Design: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted with women who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children Follow-Up Study. %DBV and ADBV were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Diet was assessed by three 24-hour recalls. Dietary ED (kilocalories/gram) was calculated using three methods: food only, food and caloric beverages, and food and all beverages. Participants/setting: One hundred seventy-two women (aged 25 to 29 years) who were enrolled in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children Follow-Up Study. Participants who reported breast augmentation or reduction surgery or were pregnant or lactating within 3 months before breast density assessment were excluded. Main outcome measures: ADBV and %DBV. Statistical analyses performed: Multivariable linear mixed effects models were used. Final models were adjusted for race, smoking status, education, parity, duration of sex hormone use, whole body percent fat, childhood body mass index z score, and energy from beverages. Results: After adjustment, each 1 kcal/g unit increase in food-only ED was associated with a 25.9% (95% CI 6.2% to 56.8%) increase in %DBV (. P=0.01). Childhood body mass index z score modified the association between food-only ED and %DBV such that a significant positive association was observed only in women who were heavier as children. Food-only ED was not associated with ADBV in all women, but a borderline significant positive association was observed in women who had higher childhood body mass index z scores. Conclusions: This is the first report to suggest a potential role for dietary ED in breast density; the effects of long-term exposure to high-ED diets on breast cancer risk remain unknown.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
FUNDING/SUPPORT This work was supported by National Cancer Institute grant no. R01CA104670 .
© 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
- Breast cancer
- Breast density
- Dietary energy density
- Premenopausal women