Dietary and waterborne exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, lead and zinc using a live diet

David R. Mount, Anita K. Barth, Tyler D. Garrison, Karen A. Barten, J. Russell Hockett

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84 Scopus citations


In two 60 d exposures, rainbow trout fry were fed brine shrimp (Artemia sp) enriched with Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn both individually and as a mixture combined with As Dietary concentrations fed to trout were selected based on metal concentrations measured in invertebrates collected from the Clark Fork River (CFR), Montana In addition to dietary exposure, treatments also included simultaneous exposure to a mixture of waterborne metals at sublethal concentrations Fish in all treatments showed increased tissue metal concentrations from water and/or dietary exposure Despite these accumulations, trout showed no effects on survival or growth from dietary concentrations as high as 55 μg Cd/g dry weight, 170 μg Pb/g dry weight, or 1,500 μg Zn/g dry weight (corrected for depuration) Dietary Cu concentrations up to 350 μg Cu/g dry weight did not reduce survival or growth Fish fed Cu concentrations higher than those typical of CFR invertebrates (660 and 800 μg Cu/g dry weight, corrected for depuration) showed about 30% mortality with no effect on growth, waterborne Cu released from Artemia may have contributed to this mortality Trout exposed to diets with a mixture of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and As close to that measured in CFR invertebrates showed lower weight than did control fish after 35 d, but this difference was no longer present after 60 d

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2031-2041
Number of pages11
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1994


  • Copper
  • Dietary
  • Food chain
  • Metals
  • Oncorhynchus mykiss


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