Diet-microbiome interactions in cancer treatment: Opportunities and challenges for precision nutrition in cancer

K. Leigh Greathouse, Madhur Wyatt, Abigail J. Johnson, Eugene P. Toy, Joetta M. Khan, Kelly Dunn, Deborah J. Clegg, Sireesha Reddy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations

Abstract

Dietary patterns contribute to cancer risk. Separately, microbial factors influence the development of several cancers. However, the interaction of diet and the microbiome and their joint contribution to cancer treatment response needs more research. The microbiome significantly impacts drug metabolism, immune activation, and response to immunotherapy. One of the critical factors affecting the microbiome structure and function is diet. Data demonstrate that the diet and microbiome composition affects the immune response. Moreover, malnutrition is a significant confounder to cancer therapy response. There is little understanding of the interaction of malnutrition with the microbiome in the context of cancer. This review aims to address the current knowledge of dietary intake patterns and malnutrition among cancer patients and the impact on treatment outcomes. Second, this review will provide evidence linking the microbiome to cancer treatment response and provide evidence of the potentially strong effect that diet could have on this interaction. This review will formulate critical questions that will need further research to understand the diet-microbiome relationship in cancer treatment response and directions for future research to guide us to precision nutrition therapy to improve cancer outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100800
JournalNeoplasia (United States)
Volume29
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022

Keywords

  • Cachexia
  • Dietary intake
  • Dietary risk factors
  • Malnutrition
  • Oncology
  • Quality of life

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