Dicarboxylic acids play an important role in atmospheric chemistry, yet their emissions from primary sources, such as internal combustion engines, has not been extensively studied. In this work, KOH impregnated quartz filters were loaded with exhaust gases from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine equipped with a catalytic gasoline particulate filter (GPF). All filters were analyzed for carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids using a derivatized gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy method. Exhaust gas was sampled from pre-GPF and post-GPF locations to determine the performance of the GPF regarding acid conversion. Lean and stoichiometric engine modes were considered with non-oxygenated gasoline and 10% splash blended ethanol in gasoline (E10) to examine the impact of stoichiometry and fuel type. Acid emissions represented as much as 0.51% of total unburned hydrocarbon emissions for total monocarboxylic acids and as much as 0.40% for total dicarboxylic acids. Individual acid concentrations were as high as 38 mg/kg-fuel for monocarboxylic acids and as high as 29 mg/kg-fuel for dicarboxylic acids. Overall, the study found that fuel oxygenates had mixed impact on the acid emissions. Engine-out monocarboxylic acids were reduced when using the E10 fuel by approximately 30–45% for the stoichiometric condition and increased marginally for the lean condition. Dicarboxylic acid emissions were generally insensitive to ethanol content. However, the engine condition significantly affected the acid emissions. Lean operation produced a factor of two to an order of magnitude higher emissions rates of both monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids than the stoichiometric condition. The catalytic GPF eliminated between 80 and 92% of the acids emitted from the engine, allowing some acids to be emitted into the environment.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), under Award Number DE-EE0007217. The authors appreciate the financial and technical support of project partners FCA US and BP North America for the project.
- Catalytic GPF
- Dicarboxylic acids
- Engine emissions
- Fuel oxygenates