Predisposition to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute leukemia is a hallmark of Fanconi anemia (FA). Morphologic criteria for MDS in FA are not well established, nor is the significance of clonal chromosomal abnormalities. We reviewed bone marrow samples of 119 FA patients: 23 had MDS, with the most common subtype refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia. The presence of MDS was highly correlated with the presence of clonal abnormalities. Neutrophil dysplasia and increased blasts were always associated with the presence of a clone, in contrast with dyserythropoiesis. The most frequent clones had gains of 1q and 3q and/or loss of 7. Karyotype complexity also correlated with MDS. One third of patients with 3q as a sole abnormality had no MDS; patients with 3q and an additional abnormality all had MDS. The data provide a rationale for integrating cytogenetic findings with independently evaluated morphologic findings for monitoring bone marrow status in FA.
- Myelodysplastic syndrome