Diagnosis and Staging of Bladder Cancer

Hamed Ahmadi, Vinay Duddalwar, Siamak Daneshmand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Scopus citations


Cystoscopic examination remains the gold standard technique for initial diagnosis of bladder cancer (BCa). Despite significant progress in enhanced cystoscopic techniques, blue light cystoscopy and narrow band imaging are the only ones well supported by high-level evidence and, if available, should be used during initial staging of BCa. Multiparametric MRI could be an important imaging tool in local staging of BCa. With ever-expanding targeted therapy and immunotherapy options in both muscle-invasive and non-muscle-invasive BCa, molecular subtyping could become an essential part of initial histologic staging in the near future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)531-541
Number of pages11
JournalHematology/Oncology Clinics of North America
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Dr S. Daneshmand serves on the advisory board of Janssen, Ferring, Photocure, Taris, Spectrum, Pacific Edge, QED, Abbvie, Johnson & Johnson, Janssen, Seattle Genetics, Nucleix, Aduro, and Bristol Myer Squibb, and additionally as consultant to Pacific Edge and Photocure, Inc. Dr V. Duddalwar is advisory board member of DeepTek and serves as a consultant for Radmetrix. Dr H. Ahmadi has nothing to disclose.


  • Bladder cancer
  • Diagnosis
  • Enhanced cystoscopy
  • Imaging
  • Staging
  • Transurethral resection of bladder tumor

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review


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