Diagnosis and management of antibody-mediated rejection: Current status and novel approaches

A. Djamali, D. B. Kaufman, T. M. Ellis, W. Zhong, A. Matas, M. Samaniego

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

277 Scopus citations


Advances in multimodal immunotherapy have significantly reduced acute rejection rates and substantially improved 1-year graft survival following renal transplantation. However, long-term (10-year) survival rates have stagnated over the past decade. Recent studies indicate that antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is among the most important barriers to improving long-term outcomes. Improved understanding of the roles of acute and chronic ABMR has evolved in recent years following major progress in the technical ability to detect and quantify recipient anti-HLA antibody production. Additionally, new knowledge of the immunobiology of B cells and plasma cells that pertains to allograft rejection and tolerance has emerged. Still, questions regarding the classification of ABMR, the precision of diagnostic approaches, and the efficacy of various strategies for managing affected patients abound. This review article provides an overview of current thinking and research surrounding the pathophysiology and diagnosis of ABMR, ABMR-related outcomes, ABMR prevention and treatment, as well as possible future directions in treatment. This review addresses the spectrum of antibody-mediated rejection after kidney transplantation, including its pathogenesis, risk factors, phenotypes, the revised Banff 2013 classification, treatment options, and outcomes. Also see meeting report by Haas et al on page 272.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)255-271
Number of pages17
JournalAmerican Journal of Transplantation
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2014


  • Antibody-mediated rejection
  • complement C4d
  • donor-specific antibodies
  • phenotype


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