Developmental plasticity in linear genetic programming

Nic McPhee, Ellery Crane, Sara E. Lahr, Riccardo Poli

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    8 Scopus citations

    Abstract

    Biological organisms exhibit numerous types of plasticity, where they respond both developmentally and behaviorally to environmental factors. In some organisms, for example, environmental conditions can lead to the developmental expression of genes that would otherwise remain dormant, leading to significant phenotypic variation and allowing selection to act on these otherwise "invisible" genes. In contrast to biological plasticity, the vast majority of evolutionary computation systems, including genetic programming, are rigid and can only adapt to very limited external changes. In this paper we extend the N-gram GP system, a recently introduced estimation of distribution algorithm for program evolution, using Incremental Fitness-based Development (IFD), a novel technique which allows for developmental plasticity in the generation of linear-GP style programs. Tests with a large set of problems show that the new system outperforms the original N-gram GP system and is competitive with standard GP. Analysis of the evolved programs indicates that IFD allows for the generation of more complex programs than standard N-gram GP, with the generated programs often containing several separate sequences of instructions that are reused multiple times, often with variations.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Title of host publicationProceedings of the 11th Annual Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO-2009
    Pages1019-1026
    Number of pages8
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Dec 31 2009
    Event11th Annual Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO-2009 - Montreal, QC, Canada
    Duration: Jul 8 2009Jul 12 2009

    Publication series

    NameProceedings of the 11th Annual Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO-2009

    Other

    Other11th Annual Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO-2009
    CountryCanada
    CityMontreal, QC
    Period7/8/097/12/09

    Keywords

    • Development
    • Genetic programming
    • N-grams
    • Plasticity

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