Developmental modeling effects on the quantitative and qualitative aspects of motor performance.

P. McCullagh, J. Stiehl, M. R. Weiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


The purpose of the present experiment was to replicate and extend previous developmental modeling research by examining the qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of motor performance. Eighty females of two age groups (5-0 to 6-6 and 7-6 to 9-0 years) were randomly assigned to conditions within a 2 x 2x2 (Age x Model Type x Rehearsal) factorial design. Children received either verbal instructions only (no model) or a visual demonstration with experimenter-given verbal cues (verbal model) of a five- part dance skill sequence. Children were either prompted to verbally rehearse before skill execution or merely asked to reproduce the sequence without prompting. Both quantitative (order) and qualitative (form) performances were assessed. Results revealed a significant age main effect for both order and form performance, with older children performing better than younger children. A model type main effect was also found for both order and form performance. The verbal model condition produced better qualitative performance, whereas the no model condition resulted in better quantitative scores. These results are discussed in terms of differential coding strategies that may influence task components in modeling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)344-350
Number of pages7
JournalResearch Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1990


  • Developmental factors
  • Modeling
  • Observational learning
  • Rehearsal


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