Developmental events associated with the critical stage for sex determination in wild-rice florets

S. S. Han, Q. Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The developmental events of florets and a critical stage for sex determination in two wild-rice populations (Zizania palustris cv. Franklin and Zizania palustris cv. K-2Pi) have been identified. Formation of bisexual florets precedes the development of both male and female florets. Developmental indicators, established by measuring the length of florets and panicles, indicate that the critical stage for sex determination occurs when floret and panicle lengths are 1-2 mm and 3 cm., respectively. The stage of floret development at which sex determination occurs is the same in the two investigated wild-rice populations. Organ suppression in bisexual florets is an essential step for sex determination during the formation of unisexual florets. Histological examination of suppressed stamens or pistils in unisexual florets of wild-rice indicates that cell death does not occur during sex determination. In addition, the length of anthers and pistils in bisexual florets indicates that floral development in the transition zone is normal when compared with the male, florets in the male spikelets and female florets in the female spikelets.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1127-1133
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Plant Sciences
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1999


  • model
  • Zizania
  • wild-rice
  • expression
  • aquatic plants
  • flowering plants
  • cell death
  • cucumber
  • development
  • flower development
  • maize
  • organ suppression
  • resource-allocation
  • sex determination
  • sex expression


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