Development of an Integrated Electro-Hydraulic Machine to Electrify Off-highway Vehicles

FNU Nishanth, Garrett R Bohach, MD MINAL NAHIN, James Van de Ven, Eric L Severson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Electrification of off-highway vehicles is notoriously challenging due to extreme power density requirements. This article proposes and develops an axial flux machine integrated with a hydraulic pump to realize a single modular, electro-hydraulic machine to electrify off-highway vehicle implements. This integrated machine eliminates redundant bearings, couplings, and shaft seals, reuses surfaces, and enables direct cooling of the electric machine with the hydraulic fluid, to significantly increase power density. Three popular axial flux machine variants are first compared using a finite element analysis based design optimization approach. The single rotor, single stator variant is identified to be the most promising for integration with the hydraulic pump. Next, a multiphysics framework of the complete integrated hydraulic pump and axial flux machine is developed to characterize the design space. The results indicate promising potential for this concept to realize efficiency over 85% and power density over 5 kW/kg for the complete machine (electric machine, hydraulic pump, and thermal management system), while utilizing conventional materials (thin gauge silicon steel, N45 magnets, and enamelled copper wire). A prototype axial flux machine has been experimentally characterized and integrated with a hydraulic pump to demonstrate the integrated electro-hydraulic machine concept.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6163-6174
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1972-2012 IEEE.


  • Axial flux machine
  • electric machine design
  • hydraulic-electric integration
  • multiphysics optimization
  • off-highway vehicle electrification
  • power density
  • radial piston pump


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