Development of an in vitro model of acquired resistance to toceranib phosphate (Palladia®) in canine mast cell tumor

Charles H.C. Halsey, Daniel L. Gustafson, Barbara J. Rose, Amber Wolf-Ringwall, Robert C. Burnett, Dawn L. Duval, Anne C. Avery, Douglas H. Thamm

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Background: Mast cell tumors (MCTs) are the most common skin tumors in dogs and exhibit variable biologic behavior. Mutations in the c-kit proto-oncogene are associated with the tumorigenesis of MCTs, resulting in growth factor-independent and constitutive phosphorylation of the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). Toceranib (TOC) phosphate (Palladia®) is a KIT RTK inhibitor that has biological activity against MCTs. Despite these benefits, patients ultimately develop resistance to TOC. Therefore, there is a need to identify distinguishing clinical and molecular features of resistance in this population. Results: The canine C2 mastocytoma cell line contains an activating mutation in c-kit. Three TOC-resistant C2 sublines (TR1, TR2, TR3) were established over seven months by growing cells in increasing concentrations of TOC. TOC inhibited KIT phosphorylation and cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in the treatment-naïve, parental C2 line (IC50 < 10 nM). In contrast, the three sublines were resistant to growth inhibition by TOC (IC50 > 1,000 nM) and phosphorylation of the KIT receptor was less inhibited compared to the TOC-sensitive C2 cells. Interestingly, sensitivity to three structurally distinct KIT RTK inhibitors was variable among the sublines, and all 3 sublines retained sensitivity to the cytotoxic agents vinblastine and lomustine. Sequencing of c-kit revealed secondary mutations in the juxtamembrane and tyrosine kinase domains of the resistant sublines. These included point mutations in TR1 (Q574R, M835T), TR2 (K724R), and TR3 (K580R, R584G, A620S). Additionally, chronic TOC exposure resulted in c-kit mRNA and KIT protein overexpression in the TOC-resistant sublines compared to the parental line. C2, TR1, TR2, and TR3 cells demonstrated minimal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity and no functional P-gp. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the development of an in vitro model of acquired resistance to targeted therapy in canine MCTs harboring a c-kit-activating mutation. This model may be used to investigate the molecular basis of and strategies to overcome TOC resistance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number105
JournalBMC Veterinary Research
StatePublished - May 6 2014
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to acknowledge Drs. Amy Trettien, Gina Michels, and Phyllis Malpas at Zoetis for their critical review of the manuscript. The authors thank Ms. Janna Yoshimoto for her technical assistance with flow cytometry. This work and CHCH were supported by NIH 9T32OD10437-11.


  • Acquired resistance
  • Canine mast cell tumor
  • Toceranib
  • c-kit


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