Development of a Short and ICD-11 Compatible Measure for DSM-5 Maladaptive Personality Traits Using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms

André Kerber, Martin Schultze, Steffen Müller, Rosa Maria Rühling, Aidan G.C. Wright, Carsten Spitzer, Robert F. Krueger, Christine Knaevelsrud, Johannes Zimmermann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


While Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fifth edition (DSM-5) Section III and ICD-11 (International Classification of Diseases 11th–Revision) both allow for dimensional assessment of personality pathology, the models differ in the definition of maladaptive traits. In this study, we pursued the goal of developing a short and reliable assessment for maladaptive traits, which is compatible with both models, using the item pool of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). To this aim, we applied ant colony optimization algorithms in English- and German-speaking samples comprising a total N of 2,927. This procedure yielded a 34-item measure with a hierarchical latent structure including six maladaptive trait domains and 17 trait facets, the “Personality Inventory for DSM-5, Brief Form Plus” (PID5BF+). While latent structure, reliability, and criterion validity were ascertained in the original and in two separate validation samples (n = 849, n = 493) and the measure was able to discriminate personality disorders from other diagnoses in a clinical subsample, results suggest further modifications for capturing ICD-11 Anankastia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)467-487
Number of pages21
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: The data collection of Sample 4 was funded by the Institut für Verhaltenstherapie-Ausbildung Hamburg (IVAH) as part of a collaborative project on evaluating instruments for assessing personality pathology. The IVAH did not take part in data preparation, data analyses or manuscript preparation.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2020.


  • DSM-5
  • ICD-11
  • PID-5
  • ant colony optimization
  • maladaptive personality traits
  • personality disorder
  • screening tool

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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