Development of a one-item version of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale

Stephanie Bela Andela, Ragna Lamprecht, Mike T. John, Swaha Pattanaik, Daniel R. Reissmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objectives: Orofacial appearance is increasingly recognized as an important dental patient-reported outcome making instrument development and refinement efforts to measure the outcome better necessary. The aim of this study was to derive a one-item version of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES). Materials and methods: OES data were collected from a consecutive sample of a total of 2113 adult English- or Spanish-speaking dental patients from HealthPartners dental clinic in Minnesota. Participants with missing data were excluded and analysis were performed using data from 2012 participants. Orofacial appearance was assessed with the English and the Spanish language version of the OES. Linear regression analysis was performed, with the OES item 8 (“Overall, how do you feel about the appearance of your face, your mouth, and your teeth?”) as the predictor variable and the OES summary score as the criterion variable, to calculate the adjusted coefficients of determination (R2). Results: The value of adjusted R2 was 0.83, indicating that the OES item 8 score explained about 83% of the variance of the OES summary score. The difference in R2 scores between the two language groups was negligible. Conclusion: The OES item 8 can be used for the one-item OES (OES-1). It is a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring orofacial appearance. Clinical relevance: Due to its easy application and sufficient psychometric properties, the OES-1 can be used effectively as an alternative to longer OES instruments in all areas of dental practice and research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)713-718
Number of pages6
JournalClinical oral investigations
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 6 2021

Bibliographical note

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© 2021, The Author(s).


  • Dental patient-reported outcome
  • Dental patient-reported outcome measures
  • Instrument development
  • Orofacial appearance
  • Orofacial esthetics
  • Short instrument


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