Development of a mobile health intervention to promote papanicolaou tests and human papillomavirus vaccination in an underserved immigrant population: A culturally targeted and individually tailored text messaging approach

Hee Yun Lee, Mi Hwa Lee, Monica Sharratt, Sohye Lee, Anne Blaes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations


Background: Disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality signify the need for intervention efforts targeting Korean American immigrant women. Objective: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how a culturally targeted and tailored mobile text messaging intervention, mobile screening (mScreening), was developed to promote the uptake of Papanicolaou tests and human papillomavirus vaccine among young Korean American immigrant women. Methods: Guided by the Fogg behavior model, the mScreening intervention was developed through a series of focus groups. Braun and Clarke’s thematic analysis was used to identify core themes. Results: Overall, 4 themes were identified: (1) tailored message content (ie, basic knowledge about cervical cancer), (2) an interactive and visual message format (ie, age-appropriate and friendly messages using emoticons), (3) brief message delivery formats to promote participant engagement, and (4) use of an incentive to motivate participation (ie, gift cards). Conclusions: This study demonstrated the processes of gathering culturally relevant information to develop a mobile phone text messaging intervention and incorporating the target population’s perspectives into the development of the intervention. The findings of the study could help guide future intervention development targeting different types of cancer screening in other underserved racial or ethnic groups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere13256
JournalJMIR mHealth and uHealth
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2019



  • Asian american
  • Immigrants
  • Papanicolaou test
  • Papillomavirus infections
  • Papillomavirus vaccines
  • Text messaging
  • Uterine cervical cancer

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Cite this