Background: Identifying individuals at increased risk for melanoma could potentially improve public health through targeted surveillance and early detection. Studies have separately demonstrated significant associations between melanoma risk, melanocortin receptor (MC1R) polymorphisms, and indoor ultraviolet light (UV) exposure. Existing melanoma risk prediction models do not include these factors; therefore, we investigated their potential to improve the performance of a risk model. Methods: Using 875 melanoma cases and 765 controls from the population-based Minnesota Skin Health Study we compared the predictive ability of a clinical melanoma risk model (Model A) to an enhanced model (Model F) using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Model A used self-reported conventional risk factors including mole phenotype categorized as "none", "few", "some" or "many" moles. Model F added MC1R genotype and measures of indoor and outdoor UV exposure to Model A. We also assessed the predictive ability of these models in subgroups stratified by mole phenotype (e.g. nevus-resistant ("none" and "few" moles) and nevus-prone ("some" and "many" moles)). Results: Model A (the reference model) yielded an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.69, 0.74). Model F was improved with an AUC = 0.74 (95% CI = 0.71-0.76, p<0.01). We also observed substantial variations in the AUCs of Models A & F when examined in the nevus-prone and nevus-resistant subgroups. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that adding genotypic information and environmental exposure data can increase the predictive ability of a clinical melanoma risk model, especially among nevus-prone individuals.