Development of a dynamical model and energy analysis for wheel loader

Gaonan Zhao, Connor P. Edson, Jie Yao, Zongxuan Sun, Kim A. Stelson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The objective of this paper is to develop a fully integrated model for the wheel loader, including the subsystem dynamics of the engine, drivetrain, working circuit, steering circuit, and vehicle. It leads to a high-order strongly nonlinear system, and all state variables are coupled together to form a Multi-Input and Multi-Output (MIMO) system. A control architecture is proposed to decouple the MIMO system into several Single-Input and Single-Output (SISO) systems. A tracking problem has been formulated to validate this fully integrated model with the field test data. The accuracy of the model is verified by the 2.3% difference between the measured and simulated fuel consumption. Meanwhile, an energy distribution analysis is conducted to reveal the energy consumption and energy loss of each portion of the wheel loader. Such a model can be used to plan the working pattern, guide the driving habits of human operators, or refine the underlying architecture, leading to the ultimate goal of reducing total fuel consumption and improving productivity.

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© IMechE 2023.


  • Wheel loader
  • control
  • energy analysis
  • modeling


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