Development, characterization, and anti-microbial efficacy of hydroxyapatite-chlorhexidine coatings produced by surface-induced mineralization

Allison A. Campbell, Lin Song, X. Shari Li, Bradley J. Nelson, Craig Bottoni, Dan E. Brooks, E. Schuyler Dejong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

120 Scopus citations

Abstract

The surface-induced mineralization (SIM) technique was used to produce hydroxyapatite (HAP) coatings on external fixation pins with the antimicrobial agent, chlorhexidine, incorporated within the coating. The SIM process involved surface modification of the substrate with organic functional groups followed by immersion in aqueous supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions. X-ray diffraction spectra confirmed that hydroxyapatite coatings were formed. Chlorhexidine was incorporated into the coating by placing the substrate into various chlorhexidine solutions in between mineralization cycles. Total uptake was measured by dissolution of the coating into a 0.1 M nitric acid solution and measuring the chlorhexidine concentration using UV spectroscopy at 251 nm. Release rates were measured by submersion of coated substrates into saline solutions and measuring chlorhexidine UV absorbency at 231 nm as a function of time. Results show an initial rapid release followed by a period of slower sustained release. The anti-microbial efficacy of the HAP-chlorhexidine coatings was evaluated in vitro using a staphylococcus aureus cell culture. Initial results show a large 'inhibition zone' formed around the chlorhexidine/HAP coating vs. coatings with HAP only. This preliminary work clearly demonstrates that SIM HAP coatings have great potential to locally deliver antimicrobial agents such as chlorhexidine at implantation sites, which may greatly reduce the incidence of pin tract infection that occurs in external fixation. (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)400-407
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research
Volume53
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2000

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial
  • Chlorhexidine
  • External fixatlon pin
  • Hydroxyapatite
  • Orthopedic
  • Surface-induced mineralization

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