Development, characterisation, and deployment of the SNO+ liquid scintillator

M. R. Anderson, S. Andringa, L. Anselmo, E. Arushanova, S. Asahi, M. Askins, D. J. Auty, A. R. Back, Z. Barnard, N. Barros, D. Bartlett, F. Barao, R. Bayes, E. W. Beier, A. Bialek, S. D. Biller, E. Blucher, R. Bonventre, M. Boulay, D. BraidE. Caden, E. J. Callaghan, J. Caravaca, J. Carvalho, L. Cavalli, D. Chauhan, M. Chen, O. Chkvorets, K. J. Clark, B. Cleveland, D. Cookman, C. Connors, I. T. Coulter, M. A. Cox, D. Cressy, X. Dai, C. Darrach, B. Davis-Purcell, C. Deluce, M. M. Depatie, F. Descamps, J. Dittmer, F. Di Lodovico, N. Duhaime, F. Duncan, J. Dunger, A. D. Earle, D. Fabris, E. Falk, A. Farrugia, N. Fatemighomi, V. Fischer, E. Fletcher, R. Ford, K. Frankiewicz, N. Gagnon, A. Gaur, K. Gilje, O. I. González-Reina, D. Gooding, P. Gorel, K. Graham, C. Grant, J. Grove, S. Grullon, E. Guillian, S. Hall, A. L. Hallin, D. Hallman, S. Hans, J. Hartnell, P. Harvey, M. Hedayatipour, W. J. Heintzelman, J. Heise, R. L. Helmer, D. Horne, B. Hreljac, J. Hu, S. M.A. Hussain, T. Iida, A. S. Inácio, C. M. Jackson, N. A. Jelley, C. J. Jillings, C. Jones, P. G. Jones, K. Kamdin, T. Kaptanoglu, J. Kaspar, K. Keeter, C. Kefelian, P. Khaghani, L. Kippenbrock, J. R. Klein, R. Knapik, J. Kofron, L. L. Kormos, S. Korte, B. Krar, C. Kraus, C. B. Krauss, T. Kroupova, K. Labe, F. Lafleur, I. Lam, C. Lan, B. J. Land, R. Lane, S. Langrock, A. Latorre, I. Lawson, L. Lebanowski, G. M. Lefeuvre, E. J. Leming, A. Li, J. Lidgard, B. Liggins, Y. H. Lin, X. Liu, Y. Liu, V. Lozza, M. Luo, S. Maguire, A. Maio, K. Majumdar, S. Manecki, J. Maneira, R. D. Martin, E. Marzec, A. Mastbaum, J. Mauel, N. McCauley, A. B. McDonald, P. Mekarski, M. Meyer, C. Miller, C. Mills, M. Mlejnek, E. Mony, I. Morton-Blake, M. J. Mottram, S. Nae, M. Nirkko, L. J. Nolan, V. M. Novikov, H. M. O'Keeffe, E. O'Sullivan, G. D. Orebi Gann, M. J. Parnell, J. Paton, S. J.M. Peeters, T. Pershing, Z. Petriw, J. Petzoldt, L. Pickard, D. Pracsovics, G. Prior, J. C. Prouty, S. Quirk, A. Reichold, S. Riccetto, R. Richardson, M. Rigan, A. Robertson, J. Rose, R. Rosero, P. M. Rost, J. Rumleskie, M. A. Schumaker, M. H. Schwendener, D. Scislowski, J. Secrest, M. Seddighin, L. Segui, S. Seibert, I. Semenec, F. Shaker, T. Shantz, M. K. Sharma, T. M. Shokair, L. Sibley, J. R. Sinclair, K. Singh, P. Skensved, M. Smiley, T. Sonley, R. Stainforth, M. Strait, M. I. Stringer, R. Svoboda, A. Sörensen, B. Tam, J. Tatar, L. Tian, N. Tolich, J. Tseng, H. W.C. Tseung, E. Turner, R. Van Berg, J. G.C. Veinot, C. J. Virtue, B. Von Krosigk, E. Vázquez-Jáuregui, J. M.G. Walker, M. Walker, S. C. Walton, J. Wang, M. Ward, O. Wasalski, J. Waterfield, J. J. Weigand, R. F. White, J. R. Wilson, T. J. Winchester, P. Woosaree, A. Wright, J. P. Yanez, M. Yeh, T. Zhang, Y. Zhang, T. Zhao, K. Zuber, A. Zummo†]deceased

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Abstract

A liquid scintillator consisting of linear alkylbenzene as the solvent and 2,5-diphenyloxazole as the fluor was developed for the SNO+ experiment. This mixture was chosen as it is compatible with acrylic and has a competitive light yield to pre-existing liquid scintillators while conferring other advantages including longer attenuation lengths, superior safety characteristics, chemical simplicity, ease of handling, and logistical availability. Its properties have been extensively characterized and are presented here. This liquid scintillator is now used in several neutrino physics experiments in addition to SNO+.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberP05009
JournalJournal of Instrumentation
Volume16
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab.

Keywords

  • Double-beta decay detectors
  • Neutrino detectors
  • Scintillators, scintillation and light emission processes (solid, gas and liquid scintillators)

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