Development and Validation of the Pharmacological Statin-Associated Muscle Symptoms Risk Stratification Score Using Electronic Health Record Data

Boguang Sun, Pui Ying Yew, Chih Lin Chi, Meijia Song, Matt Loth, Yue Liang, Rui Zhang, Robert J. Straka

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Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) can lead to statin nonadherence. This paper aims to develop a pharmacological SAMS risk stratification (PSAMS-RS) score using a previously developed PSAMS phenotyping algorithm that distinguishes objective vs. nocebo SAMS using electronic health record (EHR) data. Using our PSAMS phenotyping algorithm, SAMS cases and controls were identified from Minnesota Fairview EHR, with the statin user cohort divided into derivation (January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2018) and validation (January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2020) cohorts. A Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator regression model was applied to identify significant features for PSAMS. PSAMS-RS scores were calculated and the clinical utility of stratifying PSAMS risk was assessed by comparing hazard ratios (HRs) between fourth vs. first score quartiles. PSAMS cases were identified in 1.9% (310/16,128) of the derivation and 1.5% (64/4,182) of the validation cohorts. Sixteen out of 38 clinical features were determined to be significant predictors for PSAMS risk. Patients within the fourth quartile of the PSAMS scores had an over sevenfold (HR: 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.03–12.45, derivation cohort) or sixfold (HR: 6.1, 95% CI: 2.15–17.45, validation cohort) higher hazard of developing PSAMS vs. those in their respective first quartile. The PSAMS-RS score is a simple tool to stratify patients' risk of developing PSAMS after statin initiation which could inform clinician-guided pre-emptive measures to prevent PSAMS-related statin nonadherence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)839-846
Number of pages8
JournalClinical pharmacology and therapeutics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024

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© 2024 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

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