Development and Validation of the Minnesota Assessment of Pharmacogenomic Literacy (MAPL)

Josiah D. Allen, Lusi Zhang, Alyssa N.K. Johnson, Pamala A. Jacobson, Catherine A. McCarty, Amy L. Pittenger, Jeffrey R Bishop

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Ensuring that patients have an adequate understanding of pharmacogenomic (PGx) test results is a critical component of implementing precision medicine into clinical care. However, no PGx-specific validated literacy assessment has yet been developed. To address this need, we developed and validated the Minnesota Assessment of Pharmacogenomic Literacy (MAPLTM). Foundational work included a scoping review of patient and general public attitudes and experiences with pharmacogenomic testing, three focus groups, readability assessments, and review by experts and members of the general public. This resulted in a 15-item assessment designed to assess knowledge in four domains: underlying concepts, limitations, benefits, and privacy. For validation, 646 participants completed the MAPL as a part of a larger survey about pharmacogenomic research and statewide PGx implementation. Two items were deemed to be “too easy” and dropped. The remaining 13 items were retained in the final MAPL with good internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.75). Confirmatory factor analysis validated the four-domain construct of MAPL and suggested good model performance and high internal validity. The estimated coefficient loadings across 13 questions on the corresponding domains are all positive and statistically significant (p < 0.05). The MAPL covers multiple knowledge domains of specific relevance to PGx and is a useful tool for clinical and research settings where quantitative assessment of PGx literacy is of value.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1398
JournalJournal of Personalized Medicine
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by a Defining the Future Grant from the College of Neurologic and Psychiatric Pharmacists Foundation and a Samuel W. Melendy/William & Mildred Peters Summer Research Scholarship from the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy awarded to JDA. The work was also supported by a University of Minnesota Grand Challenge award to CAM and PAJ. RedCap is supported by Grant # UL1TR002494 from the National Institutes of Health’s National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • genetic counseling
  • genomic literacy
  • literacy assessment
  • pharmacogenomics
  • psychometric validation

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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