Development and validation of a multidimensional measure of stress among African American light smokers

Jennifer R. Warren, Janet L. Thomas, Kolawole S. Okuyemi, Bruce Lindgren, Jasjit S. Ahluwalia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The complete Multidimensional Measure of Stress (MMOS) measure may be made available to interested persons by contacting the corresponding author. Context: Smoking rates are higher among inner-city and lower-income African Americans, perhaps due to psychosocial barriers to cessation efforts, including stress. Objective: To describe the development of the MMOS and examine the psychometric properties of the MMOS among African American light smokers. Design: Secondary analysis of data generated from a 2x2 randomized clinical trial, designed to examine the efficacy of nicotine replacement and cessation counseling among 755 African American light smokers. Results: Fourteen items were included in the final MMOS (α = 83). An exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors: interpersonal (α = .80), safety (α = .70), and financial (α = .75). The MMOS was significantly correlated with the Perceived Stress scale (r = 0.49, p < .001) and was associated with several demographic, psychosocial, and tobacco-related variables. Conclusions: The MMOS appears to be a valid measure of stress among African American light smokers enrolled in a cessation trial.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)890-897
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the National Medical Association
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2010

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding/Support: This project was supported by the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health (R01 CA91912), with Dr Ahluwalia as principal investigator. Glaxo-SmithKline provided study medication but played no role in the design, conduct of the study, or interpretation and analysis of the data. Research was conducted at the University of Kansas.


  • African Americans
  • Stress
  • Tobacco


Dive into the research topics of 'Development and validation of a multidimensional measure of stress among African American light smokers'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this