Development and testing of a self-report measure of preparing to parent in the context of a fetal anomaly diagnosis

Anne Chevalier McKechnie, Kari Erickson, Matthew B. Ambrose, Sophie Chen, Sarah J. Miller, Michelle A. Mathiason, Kathy A. Johnson, Steven R. Leuthner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: To generate a self-report instrument to capture clinically relevant variations in expectant parents’ caregiving development, specified by how they are preparing to parent an infant with a major congenital anomaly. Methods: Recent literature structured domains to guide item generation. Evaluations by experts and expectant parents led to a refined instrument for field testing. Psychometric testing included exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. Results: Samples included expert evaluators (n = 9), and expectant parent evaluators (n = 20) and expectant mother field testers (n = 67) with fetal anomaly diagnoses. Preparing to Parent-Act, Relate, Engage (PreP-ARE) resulted from a three factor solution that explained 71.8 % of the total variance, with global Cronbach's α = 0.72, and sub-scales 0.81, 0.65, 0.72 respectively. Cohen's weighted kappa indicated all items were acceptably reliable, with 14 of 19 items showing moderate (≥ 0.41) or good (≥ 0.61) reliability. Convergent validity was found between the maternal antenatal attachment and Act scales (r = 0.39, p = 0.001). Conclusion: This empirically-based instrument was demonstrated to be valid and reliable, and has potential for studying this transitional time. Practice Implications: PreP-ARE could be used to understand patient responses to the diagnosis, level of engagement, readiness to make decisions, and ability to form collaborative partnerships to manage healthcare.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)666-670
Number of pages5
JournalPatient Education and Counseling
Volume104
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The study was funded through National Institute of Nursing Research, Interventions for Preventing and Managing Chronic Illness [5T32NR007091-20] at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and a Grant-in-Aid of Research, Artistry, and Scholarship [91204] from the Office of the Vice President for Research, University of Minnesota.

Funding Information:
The study was funded through National Institute of Nursing Research, Interventions for Preventing and Managing Chronic Illness [ 5T32NR007091-20 ] at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and a Grant-in-Aid of Research, Artistry, and Scholarship [ 91204 ] from the Office of the Vice President for Research, University of Minnesota .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords

  • Assessment
  • Exploratory factor analysis
  • Infant care
  • Instrument development
  • Maternal-fetal care
  • Measurement
  • Parents
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal care
  • Prenatal diagnosis

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

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