In this study, partial nitrifying (PN) aerobic granules were developed in a sequencing batch airlift reactor by controlling the airflow rate and NH4+ loading rate. The PN reactor produced an effluent with a NO2-/NH4+ ratio of approximately one and with an NH4+ conversion rate of 1.22kgNm-3day-1. More than 95% of the total organic carbon was removed during the process. On the basis of clone library analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) closely related to Nitrosomonas eutropha and putative heterotrophic denitrifiers were mainly present near the surface of the PN aerobic granules. Microelectrode measurements revealed that both NH4+ and NO2- were consumed near the surface (<200μm), whereas no nitrate (NO3-) accumulation was observed throughout the granules. These results indicate that PN by AOB and nitrite denitrification by heterotrophs, but not nitrite oxidation, simultaneously occurred near the surface of the PN aerobic granules.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by Grant-in-Aid from the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) CREST, and JFE 21th Century Foundation. YJS was supported by China Scholarship CSC Program.
- Aerobic granules
- Denitrification via nitrite
- Partial nitrification