Developing wipe sampling strategy guidance for assessing environmental contamination of antineoplastic drugs

Susan Arnold, Matthew Jeronimo, George Astrakianakis, Miranda Kunz, Ashley J Petersen, Carole Chambers, Darcy Malard Johnson, Emily Zimdars, Hugh W. Davies

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Surveillance for environmental contamination of antineoplastic drugs has been recommended by authoritative bodies such as the United States Pharmacopeia and the National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities. Clear guidance is needed on how to develop sampling strategies that align with surveillance objectives efficiently and effectively. We conducted a series of simulations using previously collected surveillance data from nine cancer treatment centers to evaluate different sampling strategies. We evaluated the impact of sampling 2, 5, 10, or 20 surfaces, at monthly, quarterly, semi-annual, and annual frequencies, while employing either a random or sentinel surface selection strategy to assess contamination by a single antineoplastic drug (AD) or by a panel of three ADs. We applied two different benchmarks: a binary benchmark of above or below the limit of detection and AD-specific hygienic guidance values, based on 90th percentile values as quantitative benchmarks. The use of sentinel surfaces to evaluate a three-drug panel relative to 90th percentile hygienic guidance values (HGVs) resulted in the most efficient and effective surveillance strategy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This work was supported by the Alberta Health Services (grant number 095233754).

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2022.


  • antineoplastic drug
  • exposure assessment
  • surveillance
  • wipe sampling

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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