Moderate improvements in cardiac performance have been reported in some clinical settings after delivery of bone marrow mononuclear cells to patients with cardiovascular disease. However, mechanistic insights into how these cells impact outcomes are lacking. To address this, the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network (CCTRN) established a Biorepository Core for extensive phenotyping and cell function studies and storing bone marrow and peripheral blood for 10 years. Analyzing cell populations and cell function in the context of clinical parameters and clinical outcomes after cell or placebo treatment empower the development of novel diagnostic and prognostics. Developing such biomarkers that define the safety and efficacy of cell therapy is a major Biorepository aim.