Determining the temporal development of dentin-composite bond strength during curing

Jiawen Guo, Brian Holmes, Bo Yang, Yuping Li, Young Cheul Heo, Jihua Chen, Alex Fok

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Objectives As composite restorations cure a competition develops between bond formation and shrinkage stress at the composite-dentin interface. Thus, understanding the temporal development of tooth-composite bond strength should enable better assessment of tooth-composite debonding. Methods In this study, bond strengths of composite-dentin specimens obtained from tensile test at different curing times were used to determine the bond formation rate. By varying the composite thickness and output from the curing light, their effects on the rate of bond formation for two different materials (a conventional and a bulk-fill composite) were also investigated. The proportions of cohesive and adhesive failure were determined by analysis of electron micrographs of the fractured surfaces. Results The development of dentin-composite bond strength (S) with time (t) can be described by the equation: S = Smax(1 − exp(−αt)), where Smax is the final bond strength (∼12 MPa for both composites) and α the rate of bond formation. Using bulk-fill and thinner specimens gave faster bond formation. In fact, the higher the irradiance at the interface, the higher the rate of bond formation. However, α had a maximum value of ∼0.6 s−1 and the rule of reciprocity did not hold. A minimum dose of ∼2 J/cm2 was required to achieve adequate bond strength. The predominant failure mode changed from cohesive in the composite and adhesive to interfacial at the adhesive-dentin interface, indicating the latter to be the weakest link in the cured dentin-composite assemblies considered. Significance When combined with the temporal development of shrinkage stress, the current results will help determine the likelihood of tooth-composite debonding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1007-1018
Number of pages12
JournalDental Materials
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The materials used in this study were kindly donated by 3M ESPE. Jiawen Guo would like to thank the financial support from China Scholarship Council (Scholarship no. 201403170293) and the Minnesota Dental Research Center for Biomaterials and Biomechanics for hosting his visit, during which this study was performed. This study was also supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No. 81130078 and No. 81470773 ) and Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (No. IRT13051 ).


  • Composite resins
  • Dentin bond strength
  • Rule of reciprocity
  • Temporal development


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