TY - JOUR

T1 - Determination of the scalar friction factor for nonspherical particles and aggregates across the entire knudsen number range by Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC)

AU - Zhang, Chonglin

AU - Thajudeen, Thaseem

AU - Larriba, Carlos

AU - Schwartzentruber, Thomas E.

AU - Hogan, Christopher J.

PY - 2012/10/1

Y1 - 2012/10/1

N2 - The friction factor of an aerosol particle depends upon the Knudsen number (Kn), as gas molecule-particle momentum transfer occurs in the transition regime. For spheres, the friction factor can be calculated using the Stokes-Millikan equation (with the slip correction factor). However, a suitable friction factor relationship remains sought-after for nonspherical particles. We use direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) to evaluate an algebraic expression for the transition regime friction factor that is intended for application to arbitrarily shaped particles. The tested friction factor expression is derived from dimensional analysis and is analogous to Dahneke's adjusted sphere expression. In applying this expression to nonspherical objects, we argue for the use of two previously developed drag approximations in the continuum (Kn→0) and free molecular (Kn→∞) regimes: the Hubbard-Douglas approximation and the projected area (PA) approximation, respectively. These approximations lead to two calculable geometric parameters for any particle: the Smoluchowski radius, RS, and the projected area, PA. Dimensional analysis reveals that Kn should be calculated with PA/πR S as the normalizing length scale, and with Kn defined in this manner, traditional relationships for the slip correction factor should apply for arbitrarily shaped particles. Furthermore, with this expression, Kn-dependent parameters, such as the dynamic shape factor, are readily calculable for nonspherical objects. DSMC calculations of the orientationally averaged drag on spheres and test aggregates (dimers, and open and dense 20-mers) in the range Kn = 0.05-10 provide strong support for the proposed method for friction factor calculation in the transition regime. Experimental measurements of the drag on aggregates composed of 2-5 primary particles further agree well with DSMC results, with differences of less than 10% typically between theoretical predictions, numerical calculations, and experimental measurements.

AB - The friction factor of an aerosol particle depends upon the Knudsen number (Kn), as gas molecule-particle momentum transfer occurs in the transition regime. For spheres, the friction factor can be calculated using the Stokes-Millikan equation (with the slip correction factor). However, a suitable friction factor relationship remains sought-after for nonspherical particles. We use direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) to evaluate an algebraic expression for the transition regime friction factor that is intended for application to arbitrarily shaped particles. The tested friction factor expression is derived from dimensional analysis and is analogous to Dahneke's adjusted sphere expression. In applying this expression to nonspherical objects, we argue for the use of two previously developed drag approximations in the continuum (Kn→0) and free molecular (Kn→∞) regimes: the Hubbard-Douglas approximation and the projected area (PA) approximation, respectively. These approximations lead to two calculable geometric parameters for any particle: the Smoluchowski radius, RS, and the projected area, PA. Dimensional analysis reveals that Kn should be calculated with PA/πR S as the normalizing length scale, and with Kn defined in this manner, traditional relationships for the slip correction factor should apply for arbitrarily shaped particles. Furthermore, with this expression, Kn-dependent parameters, such as the dynamic shape factor, are readily calculable for nonspherical objects. DSMC calculations of the orientationally averaged drag on spheres and test aggregates (dimers, and open and dense 20-mers) in the range Kn = 0.05-10 provide strong support for the proposed method for friction factor calculation in the transition regime. Experimental measurements of the drag on aggregates composed of 2-5 primary particles further agree well with DSMC results, with differences of less than 10% typically between theoretical predictions, numerical calculations, and experimental measurements.

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U2 - 10.1080/02786826.2012.690543

DO - 10.1080/02786826.2012.690543

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84863677526

SN - 0278-6826

VL - 46

SP - 1065

EP - 1078

JO - Aerosol Science and Technology

JF - Aerosol Science and Technology

IS - 10

ER -