To improve the accuracy of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) calibrations for the Fe3 +/ΣFe ratio in basaltic glasses, we reevaluated the Fe3 +/ΣFe ratios of glasses used as standards by Cottrell et al. (2009), and available to the community (NMNH catalog #117393). Here we take into account the effect of recoilless fraction on the apparent Fe3 +/ΣFe ratio measured from room temperature Mössbauer spectra in that original study. Recoilless fractions were determined from Mössbauer spectra collected from 40 to 320 K for one basaltic glass, AII_25, and from spectra acquired at 10 K for the 13 basaltic glass standards from the study of Cottrell et al. (2009). The recoilless fractions, f, of Fe2 + and Fe3 + in glass AII_25 were calculated from variable-temperature Mössbauer spectra by a relative method (RM), based on the temperature dependence of the absorption area ratios of Fe3 + and Fe2 + paramagnetic doublets. The resulting correction factor applicable to room temperature determinations (C293, the ratio of recoilless fractions for Fe3 + and Fe2 +) is 1.125 ± 0.068 (2σ). Comparison of the spectra at 10 K for the 13 basaltic glasses with those from 293 K suggests C293 equal to 1.105 ± 0.015 (2σ). Although the 10 K estimate is more precise, the relative method determination is believed to be more accurate, as it does not depend on the assumption that recoilless fractions are equal at 10 K. Applying the effects of recoilless fraction to the relationship between Mössbauer-determined Fe3 +/ΣFe ratios and revised average XANES pre-edge centroids for the 13 standard glasses allows regression of a new calibration of the relationship between the Fe XANES pre-edge centroid energy and the Fe3 +/ΣFe ratio of silicate glass. We also update the calibration of Zhang et al. (2016) for andesites and present a more general calibration for mafic glasses including both basaltic and andesitic compositions. Recalculation of Fe3 +/ΣFe ratios for the mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses analyzed previously by XANES by Cottrell and Kelley (2011) results in an average Fe3 +/ΣFe ratio for MORB of 0.143 ± 0.008 (1σ), taking into account only analytical precision, and 0.14 ± 0.01(1σ), taking into account uncertainty on the value of C293. This revised average is lower than the average of 0.16 ± 0.01 given by Cottrell and Kelley (2011). The revised average oxygen fugacity for MORB based on the database of Cottrell and Kelley (2011) is − 0.18 ± 0.16 log units less than the quartz-fayalite-magnetite buffer of Frost (1991) at 100 kPa (∆ QFM = − 0.18 ± 0.16).
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
E.C. thanks Bjorn Mysen for generously sharing his Mössbauer facility, and his expertise. We are thankful for the thoughtful and thorough comments of two anonymous referees. M.H gratefully acknowledges support from NASA ( NNX11AG64G ) and NSF ( EAR1426772 ). H.Z. acknowledges support from National Natural Science Foundation of China ( 41603058 ). E.C. acknowledges support from NSF OCE 1433212 . K.K. acknowledges support from NSF OCE 1433182 and EAR 1347330 . The Mössbauer temperature series was performed at the Institute for Rock Magnetism (IRM) at the University of Minnesota. The IRM is a US National Multi-user Facility supported through the Instrumentation and Facilities program of the National Science Foundation, Earth Sciences Division, and by funding from the University of Minnesota. We thank Tony Lanzirotti and Matt Newville for assistance during XANES data collection. XANES spectra were collected at Beamline X26A, National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory. X26A was supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) – Geosciences (DE-FG02-92ER14244 to The University of Chicago – CARS). Use of the NSLS was supported by DOE Office of Science under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. Portions of this work were also performed at GeoSoilEnviroCARS (The University of Chicago, Sector 13), Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory. GeoSoilEnviroCARS is supported by the National Science Foundation - Earth Sciences (EAR - 1634415) and Department of Energy- GeoSciences (DE-FG02-94ER14466). Use of the Advanced Photon Source was supported by the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
- Mössbauer spectroscopy
- Oxygen fugacity
- Recoilless fraction