Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) is a novel second messenger that releases calcium from intracellular stores. Although first shown to release calcium in the sea urchin egg, cADPR has been shown since to be active in a variety of cells and tissues, from plant to human. cADPR stimulates calcium release via ryanodine receptors although the mechanism is still not completely understood. cADPR is produced enzymatically from NAD by ADP-ribosyl cyclases; several of these proteins have been identified including one isolated from Aplysia californica, two types found in mammals (CD38 and CD157), and three forms in sea urchin. A cyclase activity has been measured in extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana although the protein is still unidentified. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is another novel messenger that releases calcium from internal stores and is produced by these same enzymes by an exchange reaction. NAADP targets lysosomal stores whereas cADPR releases calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. Due to their importance in cell signaling, cADPR and NAADP have been the focus of numerous investigations over the last 25 years. This chapter describes several assay methods for the measurements of cADPR and NAADP concentration and cyclase activity in extracts from cells.