Determination and prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy from chemical analysis of corn coproducts fed to finishing pigs

P. V. Anderson, B. J. Kerr, T. E. Weber, C. J. Ziemer, G. C. Shurson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

82 Scopus citations


Twenty corn coproducts from various wet- and dry-grind ethanol plants were fed to finishing pigs to determine DE and ME and to generate equations predicting DE and ME based on chemical analysis. A basal diet comprised corn (97.05%), limestone, dicalcium phosphate, salt, vitamins, and trace minerals. Twenty test diets were formulated by mixing the basal diet with 30% of a coproduct, except for dried corn solubles and corn oil, which were included at 20 and 10%, respectively. There were 8 groups of 24 finishing gilts (n = 192; BW = 112.7 ± 7.9 kg). Within each group, gilts were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 test diets or the basal diet for a total of 4 replications per diet per group. Two groups of gilts were used for each set of coproducts, resulting in 8 replications per coproduct and 32 replications of the basal diet. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design. Gilts were placed in metabolism crates and offered 3 kg daily of their assigned test diet for 13 d, with total collection of feces and urine during the last 4 d. Ingredients were analyzed for DM, GE, CP, ether extract, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, total dietary fiber (TDF), ash, AA, and minerals, and in vitro OM digestibility was calculated for each ingredient. The GE was determined in the diets, feces, and urine to calculate DE and ME for each ingredient. The DE and ME of the basal diet were used as covariates among groups of pigs. The DE of the coproducts ranged from 2,517 kcal/kg of DM (corn gluten feed) to 8,988 kcal/kg of DM (corn oil), and ME ranged from 2,334 kcal/kg of DM (corn gluten feed) to 8,755 kcal/kg of DM (corn oil). By excluding corn oil and corn starch from the stepwise regression analysis, a series of DE and ME prediction equations were generated. The best fit equations were as follows: DE, kcal/kg of DM = -7,471 + (1.94 × GE) - (50.91 × ether extract) + (15.20 × total starch) + (18.04 × OM digestibility), with R2 = 0.90, SE = 227, and P < 0.01; ME, kcal/kg of DM = (0.90 × GE) - (29.95 × TDF), with R2 = 0.72, SE = 323, and P < 0.01. Additional equations for DE and ME included NDF in the instance that TDF data were not available. These results indicate that DE and ME varied substantially among corn coproducts and that various nutritional components can be used to accurately predict DE and ME in corn coproducts for finishing pigs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1242-1254
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of animal science
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2012


  • Corn coproduct
  • Digestible energy
  • Ingredient analysis
  • Metabolizable energy
  • Pig
  • Prediction equation

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