Determinants of human immunodeficiency virus DNA and RNA shedding in the anal-rectal canal of homosexual men

Nancy B. Kiviat, Cathy W. Critchlow, Stephen E. Hawes, Jane Kuypers, Christina Surawicz, Gary Goldbaum, Jo Anne Van Burik, Thomas Lampinen, King K. Holmes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


To define the determinants of anal-rectal shedding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA and RNA, 374 HIV-seropositive homosexual men were tested. Factors independently associated with detection of anal-rectal HIV DNA included anal-rectal inflammation and detection of anal human papillomavirus DNA; predictors of HIV RNA included detection of anal-rectal HIV DNA, anal-rectal inflammation, and high plasma HIV RNA levels. The latter (> 10,000 copies/mL) was the main determinant of anal-rectal HIV RNA shedding when HIV DNA (e.g., HIV-infected cells) was not detected in the anal-rectal sample. The local presence of HIV-infected cells and local inflammation were the principal determinants of HIV RNA among those with low (< 10,000 copies/mL) plasma HIV RNA load. Among those with anal-rectal HIV DNA present, increased HIV RNA plasma load did not increase the risk of shedding of HIV RNA into the anal-rectal canal.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)571-578
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1998

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Received 28 March 1997; revised 21 August 1997. Written informed consent was obtained from all study participants as approved by the University of Washington Human Subjects Review Committee. Grant support: NIH (CA-55488). Reprints or correspondence: Dr. Nancy Kiviat, University of Washington, HPV Research Group, 6 Nickerson St., Suite 310, Seattle, WA 98109 (nbk


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