Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the levels and correlates of homosexual stigma among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was conducted in 2011 to collect data from 451 MSM in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-validation technique and factor analysis were used to refine the constructs of a homosexual stigma scale. Data weighted to adjust for the RDS design were evaluated to estimate the population-based prevalence of homosexual stigma, depression, drug and alcohol use, multiple sexual partners, and unprotected sex. Weighted logistic regression was used to determine demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral predictors of three forms of homosexuality-related stigma. Results: Enacted homosexual stigma was significantly linked to place of birth (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.36, 0.95]), self-reported sexual identity (AOR = 0.63; 95% CI [0.41, 0.98]), multiple sexual partners (AOR = 2.24; 95% CI [1.21, 4.14]), and unprotected sex (AOR = 2.83; 95% CI [1.64, 4.87]). High levels of self-homosexual stigma were reported and were significantly associated with being married/divorced/separated (AOR = 2.49; 95% CI [1.02, 6.09]), being in a monogamous sexual relationship (AOR = 0.59; 95% CI [0.36, 0.98]), depression (AOR = 2.21; 95% CI [1.21, 4.06], and AOR = 3.13; 95% CI [1.76, 5.27]). Conclusions: The study presents the evidence for understanding the factors contributing to different forms of homosexual stigma and provides important evidence for evidence-based intervention development for stigma reduction targeting MSM in Vietnam.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by Research to Prevention (R2P) Small Grants Program funded by United States Agency for International Development (USAID), awarded to Dr. Le Minh Giang at the Center for Community Health Research and Development (CCRD). Additional support was provided by Fogarty International Center through grant D43TW007669. The content of this study is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Fogarty International Center or the National Institutes of Health.
- homosexual stigma