Detection of CMB-Cluster Lensing using Polarization Data from SPTpol

SPTpol and DES Collaboration

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5 Scopus citations

Abstract

We report the first detection of gravitational lensing due to galaxy clusters using only the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The lensing signal is obtained using a new estimator that extracts the lensing dipole signature from stacked images formed by rotating the cluster-centered Stokes QU map cutouts along the direction of the locally measured background CMB polarization gradient. Using data from the SPTpol 500 deg2 survey at the locations of roughly 18 000 clusters with richness λ≥10 from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year-3 full galaxy cluster catalog, we detect lensing at 4.8σ. The mean stacked mass of the selected sample is found to be (1.43±0.40)×1014MȮ which is in good agreement with optical weak lensing based estimates using DES data and CMB-lensing based estimates using SPTpol temperature data. This measurement is a key first step for cluster cosmology with future low-noise CMB surveys, like CMB-S4, for which CMB polarization will be the primary channel for cluster lensing measurements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number181301
JournalPhysical review letters
Volume123
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 31 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank Andrew Ludwig, Nickolas McColl, Siavash Yasini, and the three anonymous reviewers for their valuable feedback on the manuscript. S.R. acknowledges partial support from the Laby Foundation. S.P. acknowledges support from Melbourne International Engagement Award (MIPP) and Laby Travel Bursary. The UCLA authors acknowledge support from NSF Grants No. AST-1716965 and No. CSSI-1835865. The Melbourne group acknowledges support from the Australian Research Council's Discovery Projects scheme (Grant No. DP150103208). The work of L.?B. was supported under the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. We acknowledge the use of camb [29] software. This work was performed in the context of the South Pole Telescope scientific program. S.P.T. is supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant No. PLR-1248097. Partial support is also provided by the NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant No. PHY-1125897 to the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Kavli Foundation, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Grant No. GBMF 947. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), a DOE Office of Science User Facility supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Funding for the DES Projects has been provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Ministry of Science and Education of Spain, the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics at the Ohio State University, the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University, Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, Funda??o Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo ? Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient?fico e Tecnol?gico and the Minist?rio da Ci?ncia, Tecnologia e Inova??o, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Collaborating Institutions in the Dark Energy Survey. The Collaborating Institutions are Argonne National Laboratory, the University of California at Santa Cruz, the University of Cambridge, Centro de Investigaciones Energ?ticas, Medioambientales y Tecnol?gicas-Madrid, the University of Chicago, University College London, the DES-Brazil Consortium, the University of Edinburgh, the Eidgen?ssische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Z?rich, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Institut de Ci?ncies de l'Espai (IEEC/CSIC), the Institut de F?sica d'Altes Energies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the Ludwig-Maximilians Universit?t M?nchen and the associated Excellence Cluster Universe, the University of Michigan, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, the University of Nottingham, The Ohio State University, the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Portsmouth, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, the University of Sussex, Texas A&M University, and the OzDES Membership Consortium. This work is based in part on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The DES data management system is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. AST-1138766 and No. AST-1536171. The DES participants from Spanish institutions are partially supported by MINECO under Grants No. AYA2015-71825, No. ESP2015-66861, No. FPA2015-68048, No. SEV-2016-0588, No. SEV-2016-0597, and No. MDM-2015-0509, some of which include ERDF funds from the European Union. I.F.A.E. is partially funded by the CERCA program of the Generalitat de Catalunya. Research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Program (No. FP7/2007-2013) including ERC Grants No. 240672, No. 291329, and No. 306478. We acknowledge support from the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), through Project No. CE110001020, and the Brazilian Instituto Nacional de Ci?ncia e Tecnologia (INCT) e-Universe (CNPq Grant No. 465376/2014-2). This manuscript has been coauthored by employees of the Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

Funding Information:
The authors thank Andrew Ludwig, Nickolas McColl, Siavash Yasini, and the three anonymous reviewers for their valuable feedback on the manuscript. S. R. acknowledges partial support from the Laby Foundation. S. P. acknowledges support from Melbourne International Engagement Award (MIPP) and Laby Travel Bursary. The UCLA authors acknowledge support from NSF Grants No. AST-1716965 and No. CSSI-1835865. The Melbourne group acknowledges support from the Australian Research Council’s Discovery Projects scheme (Grant No. DP150103208). The work of L. B. was supported under the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. We acknowledge the use of camb software. This work was performed in the context of the South Pole Telescope scientific program. S. P. T. is supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant No. PLR-1248097. Partial support is also provided by the NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant No. PHY-1125897 to the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Kavli Foundation, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Grant No. GBMF 947. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), a DOE Office of Science User Facility supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Funding for the DES Projects has been provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Ministry of Science and Education of Spain, the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics at the Ohio State University, the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University, Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Collaborating Institutions in the Dark Energy Survey. The Collaborating Institutions are Argonne National Laboratory, the University of California at Santa Cruz, the University of Cambridge, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas-Madrid, the University of Chicago, University College London, the DES-Brazil Consortium, the University of Edinburgh, the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (IEEC/CSIC), the Institut de Física d’Altes Energies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München and the associated Excellence Cluster Universe, the University of Michigan, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, the University of Nottingham, The Ohio State University, the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Portsmouth, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, the University of Sussex, Texas A&M University, and the OzDES Membership Consortium. This work is based in part on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The DES data management system is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. AST-1138766 and No. AST-1536171. The DES participants from Spanish institutions are partially supported by MINECO under Grants No. AYA2015-71825, No. ESP2015-66861, No. FPA2015-68048, No. SEV-2016-0588, No. SEV-2016-0597, and No. MDM-2015-0509, some of which include ERDF funds from the European Union. I. F. A. E. is partially funded by the CERCA program of the Generalitat de Catalunya. Research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program (No. FP7/2007-2013) including ERC Grants No. 240672, No. 291329, and No. 306478. We acknowledge support from the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), through Project No. CE110001020, and the Brazilian Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia (INCT) e-Universe (CNPq Grant No. 465376/2014-2). This manuscript has been coauthored by employees of the Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 American Physical Society.

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