Background: Nocturia is the bothersome symptom of awakening one or more times per night to void. Desmopressin is a commonly used medication for treating nocturia. Objectives: To assess the effects of desmopressin as compared to other interventions in the treatment of nocturia in men. Search methods: We performed a comprehensive search of medical literature with no restrictions on the language of publication or publication status. The date of the latest search of all databases was August 2017. Selection criteria: We included randomized or quasi-randomized trials. Inclusion criteria were men with nocturia defined as one or more voids per night. Trials of children, adults with primary or secondary enuresis or underlying distinct disorders were excluded. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently classified studies and abstracted data from the included studies. We performed statistical analyses using a random-effects model and interpreted data according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Main results: We included 14 studies with 2966 randomized men across five comparisons. Desmopressin versus placebo: based on short-term follow-up (up to three months), desmopressin may have a similar effect on the number of nocturnal voids (mean difference (MD) -0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.94 to 0.01; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of desmopressin on major adverse events at short-term follow-up (risk ratio (RR) 0.97, 95% CI 0.10 to 9.03; very low-quality evidence). For intermediate-term follow-up (three to 12 months), desmopressin may reduce the number of nocturnal voids in an appreciable number of participants (MD -0.85, 95% CI -1.17 to -0.53; low-quality evidence). Desmopressin may result in little or no difference in major adverse events at intermediate-term follow-up (RR 3.05, 95% CI 0.13 to 73.39; low-quality evidence). We found no evidence on quality of life. Subgroup analyses suggest a larger effect with oral, higher-dose formulations of desmopressin and in men with documented nocturnal polyuria. Desmopressin versus behavior modification: there were no data regarding the effect on the number of nocturnal voids, quality of life, or major adverse events. Desmopressin versus alpha-blocker: based on short-term follow-up, desmopressin likely has a similar effect on the number of nocturnal voids (MD 0.30, 95% CI -0.20 to 0.80; moderate-quality evidence) and quality of life (MD 0.00, 95% CI -0.35 to 0.35; moderate-quality evidence). There were no major adverse events in either study group. Desmopressin plus alpha-blocker versus alpha-blocker alone: based on short-term follow-up, combination therapy likely results in a small, unimportant reduction in the number of nocturnal voids (MD -0.47, 95% CI -0.73 to -0.21; moderate-quality evidence) and quality of life (MD -0.29, 95% CI -0.51 to -0.07; moderate-quality evidence). The risk of major adverse events may be similar (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.32; low-quality evidence). Desmopressin plus alpha-blocker versus alpha-blocker plus an anticholinergic: based on short-term follow-up, combination therapy likely results in little or no difference in the number of nocturnal voids (MD -0.43, 95% CI -0.97 to 0.11; moderate-quality evidence). We found no evidence on quality of life. There were no major adverse events in either study group. Authors' conclusions: Desmopressin may reduce the number of nocturnal voids in an appreciable number of participants compared to placebo in intermediate-term (three to 12 months) follow-up without increase in major adverse events. We found no evidence to compare its effects to behavior modification. The effect on the number of nocturnal voids is likely similar to that of alpha-blockers short-term with very infrequent major adverse events. There appears to be no added benefit in the combined use of desmopressin with an alpha-blocker or an anticholinergic. The findings of this review were limited by short-term follow-up, study limitations, and imprecision.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments: supported by grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute, funded by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea
© 2017 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.