Design of Vibration-Sourced Piezoelectric Harvester for Battery-Powered Smart Road Sensor Systems

Rashmi Subbaramaiah, Saleh A. Al-Jufout, Aftab Ahmed, Mohammad M. Mozumdar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Energy harvesting is crucial for battery-powered smart sensing systems to remain functional for a longer period of time without any intervention. Utilizing road vibrations, as the source to harvest energy, for smart road sensing systems is of a significant interest. Many studies on implementing distinctive designs for vibration-sourced harvesters are currently in progress. In this paper, a vibration-sourced piezoelectric energy harvester, which has been validated by the simulation results from COMSOL Multiphysics, is proposed. The design comprises two Lead Zirconate Titanate (piezoelectric ceramic material) PZT-5J mass-spring oriented cantilever bimorphs to capture the vibrations and three silicone rubbers to increase the stress applied on the bimorphs. This productive piezoelectric energy harvester has been designed to be used in low-and high-vibration conditions. A maximum power output of 57 mW has been obtained by the designed energy harvester. The simulation results prove that the proposed piezoelectric energy harvester design is efficient to supply power to sensors and wireless systems used in smart road applications. Based on the obtained simulation results, a prototype has been developed. Considering the real environmental aspects, the prototype has been modified to accommodate the requirement of sustaining and long-lasting design.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9110503
Pages (from-to)13940-13949
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Sensors Journal
Issue number23
StatePublished - Dec 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received March 31, 2020; revised May 26, 2020; accepted May 30, 2020. Date of publication June 8, 2020; date of current version November 5, 2020. This work was supported in part by a grant from METRANS (US Department of Transportation) and CalTrans. The associate editor coordinating the review of this article and approving it for publication was Prof. Octavian Postolache. (Corresponding author: Mohammad M. Mozumdar.) Rashmi Subbaramaiah is with Communications Test Design, Inc., West Chester, PA 19380 USA (e-mail:

Publisher Copyright:
© 2001-2012 IEEE.


  • Cantilever beam
  • energy harvesting
  • lead zirconate titanate
  • piezoelectric effect


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