Density functional for inorganometallic and organometallic chemistry

Nathan E. Schultz, Yan Zhao, Donald G. Truhlar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

437 Scopus citations


We present a database of 21 bond dissociation energies for breaking metal-ligand bonds. The molecules in the metal-ligand bond energy database are AgH, CoH, CoO +, CoOH +, CrCH 3 +, CuOH 2 +, FeH, Fe(CO) 5, FeO, FeS, LiCl, LiO, MgO, MnCH 3 +, NiCH 2 +, Ni(CO) 4, RhC, VCO +, VO, and VS. We have also created databases of metal-ligand bond lengths and atomic ionization potentials. The molecules used for bond lengths are AgH, BeO, CoH, CoO +, FeH, FeO, FeS, LiCl, LiO, MgO, RhC, VO, and VS and the ionization potentials are for the following atoms: C, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, O, and V. The data were chosen based on their diversity and expected reliability, and they are used along with three previously developed databases (transition metal dimer bond energies and bond lengths and main-group molecular atomization energies) for assessing the accuracy of several kinds of density functionals. In particular, we report tests for 42 previously defined functionals: 2 local spin density approximation (LSDA) functionals, 14 generalized gradient approximation (GGA) methods, 13 hybrid GGA methods, 7 meta GGA methods, and 8 hybrid meta GGA methods. In addition to these functionals, we also examine the effectiveness of scaling the correlation energy by testing 13 functionals with scaled or no gradient-corrected correlation energy, and we find that functionals of this kind are more accurate for metal-metal and metal-ligand bonds than any of the functionals already in the literature. We also present a readjusted GGA and a hybrid GGA with parameters adjusted for metals. When we consider these 57 functionals for metal-ligand and metal-metal bond energies simultaneously with main-group atomization energies, atomic ionization potentials, and bond lengths we find that the most accurate functional is G96LYP, followed closely by MPWLYP1M (new in this article), XLYP, BLYP, and MOHLYP (also new in this article). Four of these five functionals have no Hartree-Fock exchange, and the other has only 5%. As a byproduct of this work we introduce a convenient diagnostic, called the B 1 diagnostic, for ascertaining the multireference character in a bond.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11127-11143
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry A
Issue number49
StatePublished - Dec 15 2005


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