The Hypertension Prevention Trial (HPT) was a multicenter, randomized trial testing calorie control, sodium restriction, and potassium increases in the prevention of hypertension in 841 men and women. Thirty four variables that were potentially related to changes in urine sodium, urine potassium, and weight were examined individually and together across 3 years of treatment and maintenance sessions. Univariate and multivariate analysis did not reveal a consistent pattern of variables associated with successful attainment of treatment goals or failure to do so. Baseline levels of urine sodium, urine potassium, and weight were the variables most consistently associated with compliance. Household composition, such as number of people living in the house or marital status and control over selection and preparation of foods, was associated with compliance in sodium reduction treatments. Number of complaints about the diets were positively associated with noncompliance. Attendance at treatment sessions was generally associated with compliance especially for weight loss. Practical implications of these results are discussed.