The number of US older adults with dementia is expected to grow over the next several decades. For instance, the number of persons with Alzheimer disease is predicted to increase by 50% by 2030. Physicians commonly come into contact with patients who have dementia and, as such, need to understand its varied presentation. In the current review, the most common types of dementia, including Alzheimer disease, frontotemporal dementia, dementia due to vascular disease, and several others, are described. Characteristics and etiologic findings of cortical and subcortical dementias are differentiated, and cognitive profiles and symptoms of specific types of dementia are reviewed. An osteopathic approach to care, focusing on establishing a relationship with patients and their families, is also discussed.