Delivery of a therapeutic protein for bone regeneration from a substrate coated with graphene oxide

Wan Geun La, Saibom Park, Hee Hun Yoon, Gun Jae Jeong, Tae Jin Lee, Suk Ho Bhang, Jeong Yeon Han, Kookheon Char, Byung Soo Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

182 Scopus citations


The therapeutic efficacy of drugs often depends on the drug delivery carrier. For efficient delivery of therapeutic proteins, delivery carriers should enable the loading of large doses, sustained release, and retention of the bioactivity of the therapeutic proteins. Here, it is demonstrated that graphene oxide (GO) is an efficient carrier for delivery of therapeutic proteins. Titanium (Ti) substrates are coated with GO through layer-by-layer assembly of positively (GO-NH3+) and negatively (GO-COO-) charged GO sheets. Subsequently, a therapeutic protein (bone morphogenetic protein-2, BMP-2) is loaded on the GO-coated Ti substrate with the outermost coating layer of GO-COO-(Ti/GO-). The GO coating on Ti substrate enables loading of large doses and the sustained release of BMP-2 with preservation of the structure and bioactivity of the drug. The extent of in vitro osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells is higher when they are cultured on Ti/GO- carrying BMP-2 than when they are cultured on Ti with BMP-2. Eight weeks after implantation in mouse models of calvarial defects, the Ti/GO-/BMP-2 implants show more robust new bone formation compared with Ti, Ti/GO-, or Ti/BMP-2 implants. Therefore, GO is an effective carrier for the controlled delivery of therapeutic proteins, such as BMP-2, which promotes osteointegration of orthopedic or dental Ti implants. The delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) into mouse calvarial defect is demonstrated using graphene oxide (GO)-coated titanium implant. The GO-coated titanium shows successfully regenerated bone on the mouse calvarial, which is analyzed by micro-CT and histomorphometery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4051-4060
Number of pages10
Issue number23
StatePublished - Dec 9 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • bone formation
  • bone morphogenetic protein-2
  • graphene oxide
  • titanium implant


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