Complementing long-standing traditions centered on histology, fMRI approaches are rapidly maturing in delineating brain areal organization at the macroscale. The non-human primate (NHP) provides the opportunity to overcome critical barriers in translational research. Here, we establish the data requirements for achieving reproducible and internally valid parcellations in individuals. We demonstrate that functional boundaries serve as a functional fingerprint of the individual animals and can be achieved under anesthesia or awake conditions (rest, naturalistic viewing), though differences between awake and anesthetized states precluded the detection of individual differences across states. Comparison of awake and anesthetized states suggested a more nuanced picture of changes in connectivity for higher-order association areas, as well as visual and motor cortex. These results establish feasibility and data requirements for the generation of reproducible individual-specific parcellations in NHPs, provide insights into the impact of scan state, and motivate efforts toward harmonizing protocols. Noninvasive fMRI in macaques is an essential tool in translation research. Xu et al. establish the individual functional parcellation of the macaque cortex and demonstrate that brain organization is unique, reproducible, and valid, serving as a fingerprint for an individual macaque.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by gifts from Joseph P. Healey, Phyllis Green, and Randolph Cowen to the Child Mind Institute and grants from the NIH (BRAIN Initiative R01-MH111439 to C.E.S. and M.P.M.; P50MH109429 to C.E.S.; R01-MH107508 to E.L.S. and D.A.F.; and P60-AA010760 , R01-MH115357 , R01-MH096773 , and P50-MH100029 to D.A.F.). This work was also supported in part by NIH grant P01AG026423 and the Yerkes National Primate Research Center base grant (Office of Research Infrastructure Programs; OD P51OD11132 ).
- cortical areas
- functional connectivity