The DNA replication or S-phase checkpoint monitors the integrity of DNA synthesis. Replication stress or DNA damage triggers fork stalling and checkpoint signaling to activate repair pathways. Recovery from checkpoint activation is critical for cell survival following DNA damage. Recovery from the Sphase checkpoint includes inactivation of checkpoint signaling and restart of stalled replication forks. Previous studies demonstrated that degradation of Mrc1, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of human Claspin, is facilitated by the SCFDia2 ubiquitin ligase and is important for cell cycle re-entry after DNA damage-induced S-phase checkpoint activation. Here, we show that degradation of Mrc1 facilitated by the SCFDia2 complex is critical to restart stalled replication forks during checkpoint recovery. Using DNA fiber analysis, we showed that Dia2 functions with the Sgs1 and Mph1 helicases (orthologs of human BLM and FANCM, respectively) in the recombination-mediated fork restart pathway. In addition, Dia2 physically interacts with Sgs1 upon checkpoint activation. Importantly, failure to target Mrc1 for degradation during recovery inhibits Sgs1 chromatin association, but this can be alleviated by induced proteolysis of Mrc1 after checkpoint activation. Together, these studies provide new mechanistic insights into how cells recover from activation of the S-phase checkpoint.
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© The Author(s) 2016.