Purpose: Pathogenic variants in neuroblastoma-amplified sequence (NBAS) cause an autosomal recessive disorder with a wide range of symptoms affecting liver, skeletal system, and brain, among others. There is a continuously growing number of patients but a lack of systematic and quantitative analysis. Methods: Individuals with biallelic variants in NBAS were recruited within an international, multicenter study, including novel and previously published patients. Clinical variables were analyzed with log-linear models and visualized by mosaic plots; facial profiles were investigated via DeepGestalt. The structure of the NBAS protein was predicted using computational methods. Results: One hundred ten individuals from 97 families with biallelic pathogenic NBAS variants were identified, including 26 novel patients with 19 previously unreported variants, giving a total number of 86 variants. Protein modeling redefined the β-propeller domain of NBAS. Based on the localization of missense variants and in-frame deletions, three clinical subgroups arise that differ significantly regarding main clinical features and are directly related to the affected region of the NBAS protein: β-propeller (combined phenotype), Sec39 (infantile liver failure syndrome type 2/ILFS2), and C-terminal (short stature, optic atrophy, and Pelger–Huët anomaly/SOPH). Conclusion: We define clinical subgroups of NBAS-associated disease that can guide patient management and point to domain-specific functions of NBAS.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Yoo-Mi Kim for providing additional, updated clinical information on patients NBAS 42 and NBAS 43 and John Christodoulou and Shanti Balasubramaniam for providing additional, updated clinical information on patient NBAS 63. Anne Davit Spraul is acknowledged for genetic diagnosis of patients NBAS 46 and NBAS 82, Oanez Ackermann and Dalila Habes are acknowledged for follow-up and Philippe Yakonowsky for his contribution to data collection of these patients. We thank Selina Wächter and Caterina Terrile for excellent technical assistance and Katharina Mayerhanser for organizational support. C.S. is supported by the Dietmar Hopp Foundation, St. Leon-Rot, Germany (grant number 23011235). D.L. is supported by the Deutsche Leberstiftung (grant number S163/10052/2018). J.A.C. is supported in part by the Jeffrey Model Foundation. R.B.R. and G.D.D. are supported by the Wellcome Trust grant 210585/B/18/Z (Impact of missense mutations in recessive Mendelian disease: insight from ciliopathies).
© 2019, American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.
- SOPH syndrome
- acute liver failure
- infantile liver failure syndrome type 2