Defects and Low-Frequency Noise in Irradiated Black Phosphorus MOSFETs With HfO2 Gate Dielectrics

C. D. Liang, R. Ma, Y. Su, A. O'Hara, E. X. Zhang, M. L. Alles, P. Wang, S. E. Zhao, S. T. Pantelides, Steven J Koester, R. D. Schrimpf, D. M. Fleetwood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


We have evaluated radiation-induced charge trapping and low-frequency noise in passivated black phosphorus (BP) MOSFETs with HfO2 gate dielectrics. Thinning the gate dielectric reduces total ionizing dose-induced threshold voltage shifts. The defect-energy distribution estimated from low-frequency noise measurements performed as a function of temperature decreases with increasing energy in as-processed devices. Local maxima in noise magnitude are observed in irradiated devices at activation energies of ∼0.2 and ∼0.5 eV. Larger defect-related peaks in noise magnitude in the range of 0.35-0.5 eV are observed after biased post-irradiation annealing, and/or vacuum storage of the devices after irradiation and annealing. Density functional theory calculations strongly support significant roles for O vacancies in HfO2 and H+ transport and reactions near the BP/HfO2 interface in the observed radiation response and low-frequency noise.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1227-1238
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received January 16, 2018; revised April 12, 2018; accepted April 13, 2018. Date of publication April 19, 2018; date of current version June 13, 2018. This work was supported in part by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency Basic Research under Award HDTRA1-14-1-0042 and in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant DMR-1508433.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 IEEE.


  • Black phosphorus (BP)
  • low-frequency noise
  • moisture effects
  • switched-bias annealing
  • total ionizing dose (TID)


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