Previous studies from our laboratory suggested that differential expression of genes between normal and pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) turkey is associated with development of the PSE syndrome. However, a detailed understanding of molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of this meat defect remains unclear. The objective of this study was to extend and complement our previous work by using deep transcriptome RNA sequence analysis to compare the respective transcriptome profiles and identify molecular mechanisms responsible for the etiology of PSE turkey meat. Turkey breasts (n = 43) were previously classified as normal or PSE using marinade uptake as an indicator of quality (high = normal; low = PSE). Total RNA from breast muscle samples with the highest (n = 4) and lowest (n = 4) marinade uptake were isolated and sequenced using the Illumina GAIIX platform. The results indicated differential expression of 494 loci (false discovery rate < 0.05). Changes in gene expression were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR. Pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes suggested abnormalities of calcium homeostasis and signaling pathways regulating actin cytoskeleton structure as well as carbohydrate metabolism and energy production in PSE samples. Dysregulation of postmortem glucose oxidation in PSE turkey was suggested by both dramatic downregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4) mRNA, the most downregulated gene, and a decrease in the protein product (P = 0.0007) as determined by immunoblot analysis. These results support the hypothesis that differential expression of several genes and their protein products contribute to development of PSE turkey.
- Deep transcriptome sequencing
- Pale soft and exudative
- Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4