Tillage modifies soil structure, which can be demonstrated by changes in the soil's physical properties, such as penetration resistance (PR) and soil electrical resistivity ( ρ). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of deep tillage strategies on three morphogenetically contrasting soil classes in the establishment of perennial crops regarding geophysical and physical-hydric properties. The experiment was conducted in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The tillage practices were evaluated in Typic Dystrustept, Rhodic Hapludult, and Rhodic Hapludox soil classes, and are described as follows: MT-plant hole; CT-furrow; SB-subsoiler; DT-rotary hoe tiller; and DT + calcium (Ca) (additional liming). Analyses of PR and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were performed during the growing season and measurements were measured in plant rows of each experimental plot. Undisturbed soil samples were collected for analysis of soil bulk density (Bd) at three soil depths (0-0.20, 0.20-0.40, and 0.40-0.60 m) with morphological evaluation of soil structure (VESS). Tukey's test ( p < 0.05) for Bd and VESS and Pearson linear correlation analysis between Bd, ρ, and PR were performed. Soil class and its intrinsic attributes have an influence on the effect of tillage. The greatest effect on soil structure occurred in the treatments DT and DT + Ca that mixed the soil to a depth of 0.60 m. The ρ showed a positive correlation with Bd and with PR, highlighting that ERT may detect changes caused by cultivation practices, although ERT lacks the accuracy of PR. The soil response to different tillage systems and their effects on soil structure were found to be dependent on the soil class.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We are thankful for funding from the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), from the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG), from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), and from the Departamento de Ciência do Solo (DCS) at the Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA). We also thank Geraldo César Oliveira for partnership and contributions, Sergio Henrique Godinho Silva for aid in classification and selection of the soils used, Julio Bueno for contribution in experimental design, the entire technical team of the fruit growing sector of the Department of Agriculture of UFLA, and the students Luiz O. Pagotto, Laura B.B. Melo, and Erika A. Silva for their assistance in setting up and conducting the experiment. Nilton Curi and Bruno M. Silva are thankful to the CNPq for the research productivity scholarship.
The research was supported directly or indirectly by Foundation for Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) process 0307/2021, Research Support of State of Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG), National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and Department of Soil Science at Federal University of Lavras (DCS–UFLA).
© 2022 by the authors.
- deep mixing
- resistance to penetration
- soil electrical resistivity
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article