Deep Large Binocular Camera r-band Observations of the GOODS-N Field

Teresa A. Ashcraft, Tyler McCabe, Caleb Redshaw, Rogier A. Windhorst, Rolf A. Jansen, Seth H. Cohen, Timothy Carleton, Kris Ganzel, Anton M. Koekemoer, Russell E. Ryan, Mario Nonino, Diego Paris, Andrea Grazian, Adriano Fontana, Emanuele Giallongo, Roberto Speziali, Vincenzo Testa, Konstantina Boutsia, Robert W. O’Connell, michael j rutkowskiClaudia Scarlata, Harry I. Teplitz, Xin Wang, Marc Rafelski, Norman A. Grogin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

We obtained 838 Sloan r-band images (∼28 hr) of the GOODS-North field with the Large Binocular Camera (LBC) on the Large Binocular Telescope in order to study the presence of extended, low surface brightness features in galaxies and investigate the trade-off between image depth and resolution. The individual images were sorted by effective seeing, which allowed for optimal resolution and optimal depth mosaics to be created with all images with seeing FWHM < 0.″9 and FWHM < 2.″0, respectively. Examining bright galaxies and their substructure as well as accurately deblending overlapping objects requires the optimal resolution mosaic, while detecting the faintest objects possible (to a limiting magnitude of m AB ∼ 29.2 mag) requires the optimal depth mosaic. The better surface brightness sensitivity resulting from the larger LBC pixels, compared to those of extant WFC3/UVIS and ACS/WFC cameras aboard the Hubble Space Telescope allows for unambiguous detection of both diffuse flux and very faint tidal tails. Azimuthally-averaged radial surface brightness profiles were created for the 360 brightest galaxies in each of the two mosaics. On average, these profiles showed minimal difference between the optimal resolution and optimal depth surface brightness profiles. However, ≲15% of the profiles show excess flux in the galaxy outskirts down to surface brightness levels of μ r AB ≃ 31 mag arcsec−2. This is relevant to Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) studies as diffuse light in the outer regions of galaxies are thought to be a major contribution to the EBL. While some additional diffuse light exists in the optimal depth profiles compared to the shallower, optimal resolution profiles, we find that diffuse light in galaxy outskirts is a minor contribution to the EBL overall in the r-band.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number024101
JournalPublications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
Volume135
Issue number1044
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors acknowledge support from UVCANDELS grant HST-GO-15647 provided by NASA through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-2655, and from NASA JWST Interdisciplinary Scientist grants NAG5-12460, NNX14AN10G and 80NSSC18K0200 from GSFC.

Funding Information:
The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University; and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia. R. A. Windhorst acknowledges support from NASA JWST Interdisciplinary Scientist grants NAG5-12460, NNX14AN10G and 80NSSC18K0200 from GSFC.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023. The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd on behalf of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP). All rights reserved.

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