Objective: To determine whether a recent decrease in the rate of acute rejection after kidney transplantation was associated with a decrease in the rate of chronic rejection. Summary Background Data: Single-institution and multicenter retrospective analyses have identified acute rejection episodes as the major risk factor for chronic rejection after kidney transplantation. However, to date, no study has shown that a decrease in the rate of acute rejection leads to a decrease in the rate of chronic rejection. Methods: The authors studied patient populations who underwent transplants at a single center during two eras (1984-1987 and 1991-1994) to determine the rate of biopsy-proven acute rejection, the rate of biopsy-proven chronic rejection, and the graft half-life. Results: Recipients who underwent transplantation in era 2 had a decreased rate of biopsy-proven acute rejection compared with era 1 (p < 0.05). This decrease was associated with a decreased rate of biopsy- proven chronic rejection for both cadaver (p = 0.0001) and living donor (p = 0.08) recipients. A trend was observed toward increased graft half-life in era 2 (p = NS). Conclusions: Development of immunosuppressive protocols that decrease the rate of acute rejection should lower the rate of chronic rejection and improve long-term graft survival.