There is considerable interest in the binding and condensation of DNA with polycations to form polyplexes because of their possible application to cellular nucleic acid delivery. This work focuses on studying the binding of plasmid DNA (pDNA) with a series of poly(glycoamidoamine)s (PGAAs) that have previously been shown to deliver pDNA in vitro in an efficient and nontoxic manner. Herein, we examine the PGAA-pDNA binding energetics, binding-linked protonation, and electrostatic contribution to the free energy with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The size and charge of the polyplexes at various ITC injection points were then investigated by light scattering and ζ-potential measurements to provide comprehensive insight into the formation of these polyplexes. An analysis of the calorimetric data revealed a three-step process consisting of two different endothermic contributions followed by the condensation/aggregation of polyplexes. The strength of binding and the point of charge neutralization were found to be dependent upon the hydroxyl stereochemistry of the carbohydrate moiety within each polymer repeat unit. Circular dichroism spectra reveal that the PGAAs induce pDNA secondary structure changes upon binding, which suggest a direct interaction between the polymers and the DNA base pairs. Infrared spectroscopy experiments confirmed both base pair and phosphate group interactions and, more specifically, showed that the stronger-binding PGAAs had more pronounced interactions at both sites. Thus, we conclude that the mechanism of poly(glycoamidoamine)-pDNA binding is most likely a combination of electrostatics and hydrogen bonding in which long-range Coulombic forces initiate the attraction and hydroxyl groups in the carbohydrate comonomer, depending on their stereochemistry, further enhance the association through hydrogen bonding to the DNA base pairs.